In the Eurasian project, the next goal is – creation of the Eurasian Union in 2015 year – a rival. And does not the European Union.
Once great imperial Turkey, a longtime opponent of Russia’s geopolitical, once again trying to become the leader of the Turkish-speaking peoples, promoting the idea of pan-Turkism. How Turkey acts on the minds of the Muslim population in Russia and Central Asia? What are the successes of Turkish integration project for Eurasia and whether it is a real threat of Eurasian integration?
Grand Tour: Turkey’s imperial ambitions
The idea of pan-Turkism rooted in 80-ies of the XIX century, when the Russian writer Ismail Bey Gasprinskii on pages of the Crimean newspapers began to promote the idea of unification of Slavic and Turkic peoples. Turkey claims to leadership in Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Volga region, the South Caucasus. And this is a minimum list of areas …
Colleague Gasprinsky – Ahmet Agaev – spread Turkish eyes even further, up to Siberia, Mongolia and China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Pan-Turkism is a somewhat truncated version panturanism, adding to the list of potential integration is also the territory of Iran, which fell as Russia, have geopolitical enemy of Turkey. Peoples living on the aforesaid lands began to be classed Turanian superethnos, the leading role in the union which ought to play the Turks.
Gasprinsky idea quickly picked up his Turkish colleagues and by the end of the XIX century finally filled it with content, so the beginning of the revolution of the Young Turks to make it one of the elements of its ideology. Having dealt with the Arab imperial past of Turkey, the Young Turks moved their attention to the states of Central Asia, where the support of nationalists struggling with Soviet Russia, until she took over. After the Nazis did not hesitate to support the fight against their enemy – the Soviet Union. And after coming to Turkey’s geopolitical orbit of the West and its accession to NATO, the ideas of Pan-Turkism was given new impetus to commit an act in 1991 reincarnation. Turkish ambition is staggering, and it seems that Turkey has stubbornly and consistently trying to bring them to life. After all, to expand its sphere of influence in 40 nations with a combined population of over 200 million people, besides being in the center of Eurasia, is worth a lot.
When all’s fair: “soft” and “hard” power in Turkey
Broke out in 1991 year geopolitical catastrophe opened up new prospects for Turkey and promised gaining laurels regional leader. While wounded Russian retreating on all fronts and went from Central Asia and the newly independent Turkic republics were at a loss, Turkey gradually passed to the offensive. Became the basis of tools, of course, the “soft” power. However, helping the United States in achieving the objectives in the Caucasus, the Turks regularly maintained by Chechen terrorists, providing them with support at the highest level, including through the supporters of Pan-Turkism.
However, the main interest was made on the expansion of humanitarian cooperation with the countries of Central Asia. The first step was the creation in 1991 by the World Assembly of Turkic peoples – an organization dedicated to “re-creation, development and promotion of the Turkic path of social development.” Soon followed by the expansion of co-operation programs with the Turkic peoples. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of educational programs. Students from Central Asia began to study on exchange in Turkey, and in the territory of the newly independent republics of the network of educational institutions with in-depth study of the Turkish language and history. So the Turkish leadership was to fight for the minds of the younger generation, nurturing future elite in the hope that eventually they will lead their country towards a common Turan. However, it soon appeared that the level of knowledge in the post-Soviet republics than in Turkey itself, but it did not interfere with the attempt to achieve a goal. Universities were created them. Ahmed Yassaui and Suleyman Demirel, in almost all regional centers of Kazakhstan opened lyceums and gymnasiums. It is significant that most of them are located on the territory of the southern regions of Kazakhstan. Not far behind in 90-x and “educational” programs in Russia, but in the early 2000-ies of their activities, on the initiative of the law enforcement agencies of the Russian Federation, has been discontinued.
Nursizm Gülen sect and as catalysts of Pan-Turkism
Back in 2007, Russian translations of fourteen books of Turkish theologian Said Nursi were found Koptevsky Court of Moscow extremist. And in the year 2008 Turkish sect “Nurdzhular” was banned by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, but its activity is not stopped, went underground. The teaching of Turkish theologian and preacher, according to the chairman of the Ulema Council of the Russian Association of Islamic agreement Farid Salman, the efforts of his students “became the ideology of the sect, and through the modern Turkey is trying to impose its geopolitical project around the world.”
Now Turkey drifting away from secularism, in the words of Farid Salman, knowledge of the teachings of Said Nursi “opens the door to many noble houses in Istanbul.”
In addition, after coming to power of Erdogan’s government, with Nursi – Gulen – were acquitted of all charges.
To 2004 year one-fifth of the members of Erdogan’s party is a staunch supporter Nursi’s teachings, just interested in spreading the teachings and Turkish influence. Especially noticeable influence preachers nursizma in Tatarstan, where the Turkish organization “Ertugrul Gazi” received a warning for extremist activity. In Ukraine even been discontinued operation nursistskogo underground madrassas submit Ukrainians and Russian war in Syria.
Active in their activities sect Gülen, Turkish theologian-Nur already 16-th year of living in the United States and works closely with the CIA. Gulen supporters, acting in concert with the CIA in the early 90-x preparing an attempt on Heydar Aliyev and Islam Karimov. Gulen adepts continue to operate, masquerading as education and youth organizations, as in fact extremist sects.
Promotes nursizma-gyulenizma in Russian Association of Russian and Turkish businessmen – “RUTID”, as well as the representation of the Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey “TUSKON” in the Russian Federation. In late March, “TUSKON” received approval for the construction of social and cultural facilities in the Stavropol region.
Sprouts gyulenizma their way not only in Russia. Is growing gyulenizm in Azerbaijan, where the authorities treat him warily, but do not risk openly oppose the motion.
With 1992 2000 on year throughout Central Asia by the Gülen movement was discovered about a hundred educational institutions. To date, nearly 30 high schools and one university operating in Kazakhstan, about ten high schools and one university – in Kyrgyzstan, about ten schools – in Tajikistan, one school and one university – in Turkmenistan.
Not cease operations Gülen’s movement after the death of its founder, experiencing health problems. After all, Turkey, built in the Western world, operates strictly within the allowed her to the United States.
The bottom line, it should be noted: the purpose of the activities funded by the Turkish schools with the study of the Turkish language – the education of potential pan-Turkic elites, who, according to the plans of both Turkey and the United States, in the long term should tear regions inhabited by Muslims of Russia. Similar goals are pursued and sectarians Gulen Nur. Recognition works Nursi and Gülen extremist is only a palliative, as literature and nursistskogo gyulenistskogo sense still applies, and clandestine schools – act. To compensate for the negative impact of Turkish Islam, no harm would strengthen support for traditional, does not pose any threat to the post-Soviet states and societies, Islam. It is significant that in recent hydra gyulenizma and pan-Turkism began to pose a threat not only to the territorial integrity of Georgia, but also for the government of Turkey.
However, Nur and the impact on the minds of the average and higher education toolkit former port is not exhausted. Turkey acts in recent years, not only shady ways, but quite openly. However, this will be discussed in the following text.