If I think seriously, I`ve seen and see five generations of Kazakh people: first- our grandfathers and grandmothers (born in 1890 and 1925`s). They were lived in misery period: revolutions, Civil War, Starving, repressions and Second World War, Great Patriotic War. Now these members are out from our life, they had carried away many true secrets of our life. The only thing had reached for us, that we casually overheard from their conversation in a low voice among themselves. It was a terrible time. Eternal memory to our ancestors!
The second generation of Kazakhs is- our fathers and mothers (born in 1935-1950), brought up in the spirit of monstrous deception, which drank vodka, made a career, many from which had no need to history. Now, representatives of our generation, who had seen Soviet Ideology, Independence, began to think with questions: Who are we, Where are going we from, and where we`re are going. Our task for further generation is to present the history, which is to be being lost.
Representatives from the second generation heard, that I`m a “Torah”, when they asked me from what family am I, said me jokingly or half-seriously, what the hell you`re a “Torah”, you`re “Sart” or What the hell you`re here, be cleaned from here to your Mongolia. But now, when UNESKO announced Genghis Khan as a man of Second Millennium, the situation changed in a root. Many countries, including China, India, Japan, Russia do want to assign his big name and an accessory to it. Scholars from Kazakhstan devoted their great works to this subject, where exist positive aspects, also meet such points of view, which cause, frankly saying, a smile and a sarcasm.
Although, everyone have right to assert their point of view and I do not insist, that only I`m right, want express my own opinions for worrying moments of researches “Genghisicm”! In addition to do not bother readers, I try to don`t lead the well-known references and follow principals on: “Nothing isn`t caused in an empty place” or “ Nothing causes from nothing”.
Chapter 1. Medieval Eurasia and turkis.
If you see a map of Eurasia, there is a stretched giant territory. In this territory acted Hegemonies from ancient times in the east of China, in the east of west of Rome Empire, in the south of Persian Empire. Among these empires was created the Great Turk Empire- Khanate which in result the civil strife were revived, disappeared, but certainly left their traces and big case!
Early in life I reading “Shah Nam” of great Ferdowsi, was admired by wisdom of Persian king-Shahs Kay-Kysrau, Kay-Kaus, Kay-Kabat and heroic feats of Rustam hero, he was despised willingness of Afrasiyab. But when the deliberateness was occurred to me, brightening, that Afrasiyab protected his land-Turan! People, to whom he concerned admiringly, were actually aggressors! Here is a willingness presenting the history!..
Slowly has come period of Genghis Khan. At that time, moving for protection from nomads of Great Wall the Dragon crept out and swallowed its victims in turn. Khalifat was established from south-west. The role of India and reduced principalities of Russia are not peculiarly seen. Europians were lived in the castle, figuring communication among themselves, which religion is best. There was not Great Turk Khanates, however on its shatter were existed poor dwarf khanates and scattered childbirth, the nationwide turks slowly died!
Many centuries ago, remained only one name to: – Turks (in kazakh- түркілер), the self-name- Tatars (in kazakh- татарлар ), and Lords- Hagan ( kagan, khaan) ( in kazakh- қаған, қахан, қақан)!
Nevertheless, nomads were not disappeared, they were. They made a plunder to sedentary people, fought with each other, carried off women, cattle from each other, were hunt and fall upon depending on more serious stronger neighbors. Those people, that poisoned nomads, announced them barbarian, methodically forgetting, about calling them whenever- Great Turk Khanate.
Let`s think , whom and what people were the nomads at that time?
1)The people and Nationalities: If today the number of Turk people order is 150million, Mongol people- 10 million, considering experiences shock of these people until modernism, it is possible to count at that time their ratio was 1/16. Or 93,7%- Turks; 6,3%- Mongol people! Only, the difference in, that there were no Mongol people. The name appeared later in European science, that`s why we`ll use this term as a conditional meaning. While, let`s to denote these people, in the light of “Mongolian”. Mongolians were not separated from turks, they inhabited in tight communication, also both were nomads. Many of their tribes inhabited in the Taiga, they`re called “inhabitants in wood”.
2) Language: In early period, the language of both country was one. It was dry, laconic, simple language without any stylistic colour. Proverbs had reached us from ancient times: «Persian language-lyric, Turkish- language of War», «Arabian country- town of pilgrims, Persian- country of poets, Turkis- land of leaders » At that time, according to the conclusions of scholars, the bilinguism took a place among turkis and Mongols, in this case I consider it wrong. Otherwise, how do explain matchmaking of Yesugei with turkis “kongirats”, living in a far distant, after all, no one has used with translation services! That is why I`m proned to think about the single language of those nationalities and tribes at that time, which are divided into Mongolian and turkis. If keep yesterday`s brother people in an isolation even for a short term, will appear a dialect and e.t.c. At the beginning of the 20-century they were read the same newspapers in Kazakh, in Kyrgyz language, however, today it is so difficult to understand each other.
In general, I represent that language as such, if discard all arab-persian words from modern Kazakh language, which consist about 60-65% of all words, as if to exclude Buddhist- Chinese borrowings from modern mongol language, those surely, also consist approximately 60-65% of all words, surely, we get the language of nomads of Genghis Khan period.
3) Religion: Religion of nomads was various. Turkish tribes kipchak, karakalpaks, kangli were roamed in the territory of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Khoresm land, Tajikistan, south Kazakhstan and in basin of Caspian Sea, on Volgo-Don river of Western turks, they were under influence of Islam. Thus major parts of these Turks and Uigur peopled adopted Islam religion. East nomads as naimans, kerayits were Christian Nestorian, however the main part of all nomads adhered Tengriism (in Kazakh: Тәңір).
Chapter 2. Meaning of the word Khan and Genghis
During the period of Temujin nomads called themselves, at first their accessories to the defined family. Although there were general self-name of these people- Tatars (in Kazakh-татарлар ), they called their leader as Khan, from the word Kagan, (Kakhan, Kahan) (in Kazakh-қаған, қахан, қақан ).So, the origin of the word Khan, let`s define from reduced Kagan. Subsequently, the word Kagan was really affirmed, with notion “Khan- all Khan”, or else Emperor. It is possible to confirm these conclusions by that after conquest China, commander of Genghis Khana Mukulay from turk family Zhalayr, introduced himself in front of Chinese grandees, that he is tatarian!
What does the word- Genghis mean?
Here are some versions, let`s give examples:
Genghis Khan- «effulgent, lofty big khan»; «Victorious, always winning»; «Tenghis khan»- khan of ocean, etc. khan of world; «Peak and Hollow»/ from kazakh. Шың Құз/- Peak and Hollow; «hamstring seriously»/ from kaz. Шын қысу/- hamstring; «big deal»/ from kaz. Шын іс/- big deal; «Real bird»/ from kaz. Шын құс/- real eagle, a bird; « шын қыс»- a light, a ray; «East»- eastern, east and etc.
All these versions, of course have right to exist in life, but to my mind all they have a definite lacks and weak sides. It would be necessary to authors to take into account following moments during interpreting these words. At first, Temujin had a title Genghis khan when he was 40. He was a state man, rather than a young commander, thirsting fame as Alexander the Great. At the second, the title was given by people, but he did not want this. At that time, as if it sounds strangely, the people were honest, generous, subservience was punished deathly, loses of person- to commit suicide. This indicate the actions of Jamuqa, which is being «anda» Temujin could save his life, however, he preferred a painful death, asking only one thing: kill him suffocate!. Even, in the 18- century Ablaikhan ordered to punish famous Kazakh bi releasing him to the grave yard alive for faults for a definite date, but he refused order, saying that no one comes out alive from grave, so he cut himself with pocket knife. That is what morals were existed of our ancestors in the past!. Thirdly, if Temujin had wanted to own more big name as Messenger of God, anointed sovereign of God, earth shadow of God, he would have refused from such titles, he accepts a title Genghis khan. He could called a pilgrim of God, if he would have wanted, though, he had right to this, but as opposed to today`s rulers he consciously refused from all praise. Shaker of universe, Subjugator of world, Generalissimo, genius of war art, Great commander and like these titles were given him after his death.
Now, it suggests conclusion, what upon the word Genghis lies more practical, honest, simple, understanding, noble meaning.
I personally represent this like: conducting famous Kurultai in 1206, main shaman Kokochu making a circle, mysterious ceremony, calling Tengri to witnesses, all sitting are praying to single God- Tengri, all are frozen in expectation of Great Tengri will! Worrying and awful moment! And here, weakened after hard rituals main shaman Tab Tengri- Kokochu, announces the will of sky: shows to Temujin and tells all «Шы-ын Кы-ы-ас Ха-а-ан»!
Kokochu is from turk family, that`s why his word means: «Шын- the stem of word Шындық, truth; Қас- has its meaning real, for example Хас Батыр, Қас Албасты and etc; Хан- also khan, from reduced form, Қаған »- and get «Истинный Настоящий Хан».
All were just simple, without any supernatural, a shaman pointed out, who is present khan and scattered people, which wanted to unite long ago, elected democratically- worthy, surviving orphanage and slavery and grown up strong, honest, brave leader Temujin as their khan! Electors at first were not great, consisted of mainly four tribes: Kiyat, naiman, kerayit, merkit and others. They were in the spirit of those time.
«…and tatars chose a king, he was called Genghis khan and was brave, noble, sporty man; when I tell, he was chosen as a king of tatars from all around the world, that were scattered in foreign countries, come to him and recognized him as their sovereign. ( Marco Polo, chap. LXV)
My thoughts for the question to authors above-mentioned versions confirm as: As for the occurrence of Temujin from solar ray, beaming, it does not matter to him, there was a legend about his birth far ancestor in 11 knees of Bodonchar, father of Bordzhigin, from father- Dobun-mergen and mother Alan-Goa.
Conquering, engage with real cases, high flight as an eagle, see the ocean, east and west, hamstring enemies, rise to peak of fame and union of all under his flag, then…
Chapter 3. Meaning of the word «Mongol».
I above pointed out the definition of name and self-name of people. We`ll say the name as other as called , self-name- name of whatever ethnos. For instance kazakhs were called- kaysaks, kyrgyzs, Kyrgyz-kaysaks and representatives from Large Horde, Mid Horde, Small Horde. The self-name of kazakhs has many meanings. Kazakh intelligence headed by Alikhan Bukeikhan in 1920s, when convened General Congress in Orenburgh it was forced to name this congress- General Congress of Kyrgyz. Kazakh people which called a banal reason in the 18- century by Russian Empire with Kyrgyz in due time could not reclaim the outstanding scholars Levshin, Walikhanov, only after this congress take faith begin of self-name- Alash and Kazakh.
The word «Mongol» also is treated by different scholars, authors, there is an opinion: «social-political status»; «political union of tribes and people»; «мын қол»-from turk thousand hands or thousand troops; «мын кул»- thousand slaves;
In recent years, recalling to misconception of modern Mongolians this word, a lot of Kazakh authors are erecting his begins turkis language and explaining as a meaning of «Мәңгі Eл»- an eternal nation. Apparently, the name is appealed for all, surely, it means openings of arches in Astana in honour 20-years of Independent Republic of Kazakhstan. Of course, there is nothing terrible, according to testimony of witnesses at that time and later scholars (Juwaini, Rashid-ad Din, Marco Polo, academician V.P.Vasiliev, an English scientist Harold Lamb, academician V.V.Bartold and others.) the name was so light, that all tribes which entered in political-social union have had become call themselves Mongolian. The word has become self-name those people.
But the truth is expensive! I represent this picture by the following way: after famous kurultai, Kokochu gave name to Temujin Genghis khan, Genghis khan rose and occurred corresponding inauguration- with ancient tradition, raising upon white rug chosen by khan. Worrying and aflutter moment. People make an oath on faithfulness in accordance with ceremonies. Genghis khan turns to his voters! After flame speech, he calls his united, new nation- «Кеке Манг Ол». The people sees proud, happy, acclaiming whoop!
It`s asked, why they picked up, were proud this word and what the name of nation. Above-mentioned examples meaning of the word « Mongol» wholly is not revealed, that`s why authors forget the great power of Genghis khan- simplicity and sincerity! Let`s pay attention to contingent delegates from Kurultai, they were strict people, esteeming only the laws of father. Accessory to Christianity was only conditional, cosmetic, refrained religious canons mainly supreme leaders and some fans, basic massive adhered, loved Eternal Sky Tengri! Genghis Khan being a special clever man no how couldn`t call this public Eternal People, because it would be sacrilege in connection to Tengri Father, though he was well at history of last nations, and couldn`t tell, that exist eternal nations.
In his personal manuals «Bilik» there are words , which could say only sophisticated philosopher:
What is the human being?
Shadow of Body is very short
But an untarnished name-forever.
There isn`t best friend to us,
Rather than light mentalities,
Not exists more evil enemy,
More than stupid angers!
As far as the statements of thousand hands, thousand troops and self-name of thousand slaves don`t cause an authority.
Genghis khan honored traditional ancestors, that is why it it follows interpret his nation name «Кеке Манг Ол», in this way, it would be sounded in modern Kazakh language: «Мәңгі Көктің Ұлдары», literally «Sons of eternal sky- Tengri»! (Кеке- blue, two meanings; colour and sky; Манг- мәңгі, eternal; he-son;) Nation, people cannot live forever, they will disappear, revive, but Tengri is eternal! That is why they liked name and become a self-name of nation. Hence a definition of notion Mongol-Tatarian invasion, these words have become synonyms. It was led by Genghis Khan troops. If Mukulai had called himself simply «Tatar man», the ordinary people and small commanders surely would not have differed with simplicity in front winner people, they were called proudly «Mongols», sons of Sky, just about «I`m tatar Keke Mongol-Kiyat and etc.» May be, war ideologists specially pointed this out, about superiority, chosen their people, because information-psychological battle- half of all success. Not without reason before Genghis khan armies when heard news about an invincible, fearless, merciless Mongols, they have no barrier, but who doesn`t resist , that them will have rendered- generosity!
Reading works of great Chokan and Abai about the origin of kazakhs, where they state Kazakh people were prevailing nation in the result of mixing Mongol and Kazakh people, I was astonished before, even thought, that the enlightenments might have got wrong. But, Great thinkers` re not got wrong, they were right, really kazakhs as a nation were formed in result of complicated unions of last tribes from east (argin, naiman, keray, zhalair, and etc) and others (kipchaks, uysuns and etc) «here» with their relative tribes in result of decaying Turk khanate to east and to west wing. Genghis khan was merger this relatives under his flag, what for descendants we will have to thank to him!
A few words about the appearance of modern Mongolia. The Ulus was given to Genghis khan`s youngest son Tole in territory of modern Mongolia, he was «father » of root yurt. Every self-esteem Kazakh know, that «father»- (housefather), and etc. keeper of hearth, so an ancestral house was given to small son by his father.
War is not only a bloody battle, but also it`s a whole complex military-industrial- rear events. When troops of Genghis khan went to fronts in the territory of present Mongolia, there was organized large rear provision farm, as in root yurt. Here were tightened less useful, more peaceful nationalities from any border. They were engaged with all households cases, rear works. Kazakhs call these people Tulengut. From their surroundings allocated military men and they were set off for front-rank, but there were majority population remained to rear works. Of these developed nations and peoples of modern Mongolia which for centuries came under the influence of Buddhism and Eastern religion china then they were called by the Mongols in the future it became a self-designation.
But modern Mongols should be doubly grateful to Genghis khan, thankfully to small Mongolia.
But modern Mongols should be doubly grateful to Genghis Khan , Mongolia whereby small whole world knows. There are a Turkic world classification , not Japanese and Chinese and Mongoloid Race , which included almost all people of Asia , Australia, Zealand , generally Oceania and the Americas …
Chapter 4. Meaning of the word ” Torah.”
The word «Torah» so firmly strengthened in the modern Kazakh dictionary that we will not hesitate to perceive it as a positive . There are several versions about the origin of the word «Torah» of the Mongolian «Thor» – the state, ” thorium hook ” – the ruler of the state , in the «Tauarikh Khamsa» ( famous work Kurbangali Khalid ) , interpreted from the Turkic- Persian ” Darr ” and ” fool ” originates from here ” darazhe ” – the title , in Russian sources 18 – 19 century explained «nobleman, white bone , Chingizid ».
In Kazakh society this word taken specifically in relation to a particular person and to animate and even inanimate objects . Man : ” torus ” – Chingizid among Kazakh society, ” Torah ” – Kazakh separate genus , not part of the Kazakh zhuzes ( tribal unions) , also derived from the word ” Төреші / kaz.Tөреші / ” – referee judge all kinds of competition ; ” Tөрелік / penalty . Tөрелік / “- the verdict , the decision of any dispute , ” Tor / penalty . Tөр/ “- a place of honor in the house. A lot of proverbs on the subject : “Жер төбесіз болмайды ; Ел төресіз болмайды “-” There is no land without hills ; There is no nation without the Torah , “” Tөре ұрды – құдай ұрды “-” Torah beat – God beat “,” Жер қара қазақтың бірлігінде , Eл төренің билігінде “-” Earth owns the people, and the people – the torus “,” Aққу құстың төресі, жалғыз жатып оттамас “-” Swan is head of birds … “, and etc. etc. Saying ” Жігіттің … Aттың.. Mашинаның … … төресі екен “-” That’s it! Real leader Young man`s … Horse`s … Machines`s … etc. ” That is, one word ” Torah ” means , all good , elite , goodness and the best qualities of all other objects of interpretation !
A specific individuals , descendants ” torus ” people are always treated with respect . Here is an example from the life of one of the last offspring of the once formidable Gireev Crimean Khans .
Was the offspring of the Crimean Khan Selim Giray – Symov Giray Vasily Dimitrijevic (1879 – 1968 g.Stepnyak , Kostanay ) . His father – Prince, Captain 1st rank Sims Khan Selim Giray Dimitri V. / baptized / Naval Attache of the Russian Empire in London. Sims Jr. Giray was educated in Germany – the engineer . Worked in Europe, Asia , Africa, America and Japan. Participant 1 – World War II on the side of Russia , after the Revolution from 1918 according to call the Bolsheviks worked on major projects, electrification , construction of canals and other branches of industry in the USSR . In 1930, was vacationing in the Crimea. ” He came to Alupka , left things in the hotel room , went out into the street. At the entrance he waited for a bunch of old Tatars in turbans and long robes . Vasily suddenly remembered that frightened look of surprise , which gave him the porter who took passport. Selim Giray surrounded muttering humiliated welcome beating bows . Southern sun was shining brightly . The engineer looked back any young person – gray beards , dirty robes, senile fingers clutching his clothes in whose veins flows the ” Khan’s blood.” And he is a man of dozen , at the moment recoiled in horror and ran down the street – it seemed that clings to the past itself , trying to drag him along . ” / «Известия », № 50, 01.03.1966 . And Buzylev / . Nothing stopped Tatar elderly to express their love for the distant offspring of Genghis Khan , even though he has long since become the “other” : Russian , baptized ! All power to the Muslims was their khan ! I do not know, modern Tatars still honorable – whether their khans , but Kazakhs always belong to the genus ” Torah ” with reverence. Specific examples are given in my previous notes .
Now the question is who else but the Kazakhs to adopt and apply the word ” Torah.” I will not look back the distant past, but here I give a few examples of the late 19th – and early 20th – century , the time that was one of the dramatic moments and events in the life of the Turks of Central Asia.
Here’s one document on capture of the city of Tashkent Russian : Compiled by E.T. Smirnov ” Overview of Syrdarya region for 1886 .” For the greatest possible number of meetings taking note of Tashkent Russian , Russian scientists , the military turned to Sart Tashkent with a proposal to describe the events their points of view. Mullah Yunus was undertaken , a former Mirza (Secretary ) at Kokand authorities. Written on Sart language , but the author argues for TÜRKSAM (what is the language and the people – food for thought ) . In his record was given the name of the peoples : Sart , Kirghiz, Kipchaks , Turkic , Tajik, Galcha , nomads, Dulatov shemyr , Kirghiz of Russian troops , Kirghiz Kipchaks kyryk, Kara Kalpak , shynyshkyly . Russian scientists complete the list of Uzbeks and Kara- Kirghiz . It should be noted to the name ” Sart ” earlier nobody was offended , remember the famous appeal to Stalin TÜRKSAM peoples. The author calls Sadiq ( son of the famous Khan Kenesary ) Hodge – Aglyam and Arslanbek – Thuret and Russian authors Sadiq Sultan , also Thuret . After the death of Alimkulov Tashkent people appointed Sadiq Thuret as a head of army. And he repelled the first assault on Russian and Russian people were retreated . Kokand Khan, Tashkent lords then Ruler of Bukhara feared from Sadiq . In our strife we fight each other, but they are all my people . If seize power from the Kyrgyz steppes Sadiq Khan – Thuret , we will not see subsequently a power as their ears , they said. As a result of intrigues Sadiq handed power Tashkent Bukhara ruler , he went to the nomads . But it’s a different story .
In the national liberation of the peoples of Eastern Turkestan performances in the first half of the 20th – century eminent role played by representatives of the torus. The first president of the East Turkestan Revolutionary Republic (1944 – 1946) was – Alikhan Shakirhodzhaev (1885 – 1976 in Tashkent ) , Minister – Zhanym torus. , Companion in arm and then head performances of Ospan hero was a legend Dalelhan Torah , who died recently in Turkey .
Alikhan Shakirhodzhaev in 1920s was repeatedly arrested by the Soviet government in 1930 was sentenced to 10 years in Pishpek . In 1931 he managed to escape from the Bolshevik captivity , and settled in Ghulja . his name is written in all sources : Alikhan Tura Sagun , Alikhan tyurya .
As seen from these examples, the word ” Torah ” besides Kazakhs was known : the Uzbeks , Uyghurs , Kyrgyz, Turkmen and Karakalpaks , also Russian . But pronounced and written differently : in Russian – ” Thuret ” Uzbeks , Tajiks, Turkmens – ” tyurya ” Kazakhs , Kirghiz – ” tөre ” Uighurs – ” round ” or ” tours”.
Now consider the options of origin of the word itself . Discourse of Russian scientists ” nobleman, white bone , Chingizid , head of ” final, correct , but does not give the meaning of the word’s origin . I don `t know the Mongolian language and do not presume to interpret the word” ториан”and the word “хук ” all clear, and very much doubt about its purely Mongolian origin . Firstly the word “хук ” is not purely Turkic and Mongol and Arab borrowed Kazakhs as ” құқ “, hence ” Hukimat ” on ” Өкімет ” and ” Үкімет .” Secondly modern Mongols ” Genghisides ” do not call ” torus “, and referred to as ” Aлтун уруг “, well for that word еру Kazakhs have no need an interpreter . Third , most modern Mongols borrowed these words from Turks.
And the interpretation of the origins Kurbangali Khalid ” торе” from the words ” дарра” and “дуре ” is highly doubtful because Kazakhs in the early 19th – century , can still before, understood the word “дареже” and understand it as it is – ” the title .” Therefore, I think the thought of Muslim scholars attribute all the Muslim , this example would be , what some “Шежіре” origin Kazakh tribes descended from ” Aнес Сахаба .”
For these reasons , I think the word ” torus ” comes purely from the Turkic word ” тура “, literally ” straight, fair , right , the truth .” This shows the name of Alikhan Shakirhodzhaeva – Alikhan Uighurs and Uzbeks Sagun Torus Alikhan torus …
I specially allocated the word name, self-name of nations. For us, kazakhs, when had name Kyrgyz, kaisak, it was offensive to us! If call now, «Turkis», we must be proud of it! If call «tatars and mongols» we must not be offensive , our far ancestors were named and self-named parallel with tatars, a great Genghis khan gave a name to his people «Mongol». This can not be confused with modern Mongolia.
First there were Turk Khanates and rulers ” Hagan or Ka- Ana ” here the word ” Khan” . There was another great strength of the Shaker universe, conqueror of the world , the Generalissimo , genius of martial arts, the great commander : simplicity, modesty , justice and sincerity , That is why in order to emphasize that he has become a real Khan called by ” Shyn Kyas Haan ” sunsequently under the laws of phonetics Genghis Khan ! Genghis Khan called his people ” Keke Mang Ol” , literally in Kazakh ” Мәңгі көктің ұлдары “, which means ” sons of the Eternal Heaven !” As a result of the imposition of a small nation were remaining as a native yurt, arisen from different tribes and people began to refer to the Mongols . Turkic word ” Тура “, literally “straight , fair, the word” Torah ” / penalty . «Tөре» was applied to ” Genghisides ” and in other cases of life , emphasizing the exclusivity of something or …
Words about the structure and directions of the Kazakh society . Kazakhs lived in a strictly generic – clan , self-governing , identical society. Any insult, conveyed member of society , was perceived as a personal insult everyone. Society was ruled by nobles , honest people , elders , biys ,heros of their people. There were no despotic tyrants among Kazakh people. But the leaders of these communities were smarter, more noble than us. They came up with regulars , leaving clan disputes judges ” Genghisides ” – head – sultans , paying tribute to his great ancestor Genghis Khan ! Kazakhs never gave power over themselves to others. In a society, where there was a loss of face higher life preclude such perverse notions bribe prejudice . Elected leaders , the most deserving people . Therefore, even the poorest poet could talk face to face with Khan , to the almighty Sultan – to governor a criticism, without flattery ! Worthy people , in turn, were obliged to listen and draw the appropriate conclusions , and not engage in persecution of critics. In folklore traditions , each family of Kazakhs are traced as elders asked one kind of noble khans , sultans themselves in the ” torus ” young sons to behave himself, and to instill the mentality of his family, tribe , Juz( tribal unions) . And in this spirit the well-mannered torus – sultans gave their lives for the case of his people …